Somaliland Investment Company Waa Shirkad Si Gaar Ah loo Leeyahay, Waayo?

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Maalmahan ba waxa saaxadda warbaahinta haysatay arrin si ku-soo-booddo ah bulshada u dhex timi kuna saabsan diiwaangelinta company Somaliland ay leedahay, kuna suntan yihiin Wasiir Sacad Cali Shire Iyo Safiir Baashe Cawil, magaceedana la yidhaahdo “ Somaliland Investment Company.” Qoraalkan kooban ujeedkiisu waa in uu soo gudbiyo jawaabaha saddex su’aalood oo waawayn. Waa ta koobaad e,  muxuu yahay Company-gani? Waa ta labaad e, ma shirkad si gaar ah loo leeyahay baa mise waa shirkad dawladdu leedahay, sida la sheegay? Waa ta saddexaad e, waa maxay gefefka sharci ee ku gadaaman company-gan haddii ay wax u jiraan sida la sheegay? Ta afaraad, waxa aan soo jeedin doonaa wixii aniga ay ila tahay marka arrinkan shirkadda ay noqoto.

 
Ka hor inta aanan su’aasha koobaad galin, labba horta aan cadeeyo, Wasiir Sacad iyo Safiir Baashe waxa ay shirkadda u dhigeen in ay Somaliland ka caawin doonto dhibta ictiraaf la’aantu ku hayso arrinta maalgashiga dibadda. Aasaaska shirkadaha noocan ahi ma aha mid kaliya ay baahi u qabaan wadamadda aan ictiraafka lahayniye, waa shirkado ay sidoo kale samaystaan wadamadda dhaqaalaha dunida hogaaminayaa. 10 January 1995 ayuu waddanka China sharci u samaystay shirkadaha noocan ah (Foreign Investment Companies Limited By Shares), isla markaana la bilaabay hirgalintooda. Markaa ma aha kaliya wax Somaliland u gaar ah e, waa qaab dunidu ay igu tartanto maalgashiga dibadda kaga imanaya. Ta kale, Safiir Baashe  iyo Wasiir Sacad waxa ay sheegeen in shirkaddu kaliya ay ka shaqaynayso fudaydinta maalgashiga. Arrintani iyana waa marrin-habaabin. Shirkaddu iyadda lafteeda ayaa qayb ka ah maalgashiga oo wax maalgashan karta waana sababta ay u urursanayso hantida faraha badan!

Bal aan ku bilaabo e, sida ku cad bogga company-ga, Somaliland Investment Company Ltd waa shirkad saammiley ah oo loogu talo-galay in ay ka qayb-qaadato maalgashiga Somaliland iyadoo marka hore iyaddu abbuuraysa saaxadii aaminka hantiyeed ee suuqyadda caalamiga ah, isla markaana dhankeeda wax maalgashan karta. Shirkadda waxa laga diiwaangeliyay Dubia Internatioanl Financial Centre (DIFC) si ay halkaas uga qadhaabsato, maalgashina Somaliland ugu soo jiiddo. DFIC waxa ay Company-yada u diiwaangelisaa saddex nooc sida ku cad qodobka 9aad ee xeerka companiyadda DIFC ee sumaddiisu tahay DIFC Law No. 2/2009, wax ka badal na lagu sameeyay May 2017 kuna suntan DIFC Law No. 1/2017. Saddexdan nooc oo kale ah: 1) Company limited by shares; 2) Limited Liability Companies; 3) Recognized Companies. Sidaas awgeed, Somaliland Investment Company waxa lagu diiwaan-geliyay nooca koobaad oo ah Company Limited by shares. Inta badan noocani waxa uu u sii kala baxaa labba qaybood; mid khaas ah (Private) Iyo Mid caam ah oo saamigiisa ay cid waliba ka qayb qaadan karto (Public). SIC waxa lagu diiwaangeliyay nooca public-ga ah, shardina waxa ah in lacag $ 50,000 ah lagu bilaabo saamiga. Marka laga eego qaababka lagu sameeyo companyada noocan ah, inta badan labba qaab (Methods) midkood ayay maraan: ‘Promoting Method’ oo ah in dadka abbuuraya company-gu ay dhamaan saamiyadda iyagu iibsadaan iyo ‘Share Float Method’ oo ah qaab saamiyada qaybta hore ay iibsadaan aasaasayaasha shirkaddu, inta hadhayna loo daayo in saammiley kale laga iibiyo.

Marka intaas aan ka nimaadno, waxa aan jecelahay in aan ku dooddo in Somaliland Investment Company aanay ahayn shirkad dawli ah ee ay tahay shirkad si gaara loo aasaastay, loona diiwaangashaday. Si dooddan aan sal ugu yeello, aan soo horaysiiyo waxyaabaha aasaasiga u ah in cidi ay sheegato lahaanshiiyaha noocan oo kale ah. Arrinta koobaad waxa weeye waa ayo cidda ku qoran heshiiska lahaanshiiyaha shirkadda? Su’aashan jawaabteedu way iska cadahay oo waa shakhsiyaad, waliba magacyadooda ay ugu horeeyaan Wasiir Sacad Iyo Baashe Cawil. Sababtu waxa weeye, sida ku xusan qodobka 10aad ee xeerka shirkadaha ee DFIC, waa company-ga la diiwaan galinayaa uu yeesho “Jiritaan qaanuuneed” amma Legal Personality. Arrintani waxa ay dalbanaysaa waa ayo cidda lahaanshiiyaha company-ga lihi, mee se heshiiskii sharciga aha? Si arrintan loo xaliyo, company-gana loo diiwaangeliyo shakhsiyaad ayaa heshiis galay, sidaasna magacyadooda ugu diiwaangashaday company-ga! Doodda waxa aan jecelahay in aan ku xoojiyo, Safiir  Baashe waxa uu sheegay in xeerkii lagu maamuli lahaa shirkadda gadaal laga samayn doono. Tan macnaheedu waxa weeye, shirkaddu hore uma laha legal personality, haddiiba ay dawladdu yeelan lahayd! Su’aashu waxa ay tahay markaa, haddii aanu jirin xeer lagu maamulayo shirkadda amma jiritaan qaanuuniya dawladda lafteeda, yaa iibinaya saamiga $50,000,000,000 ah ee iibka u jooga sida ku cad page-ka shirkadda? Sidee loo iibinayaa? Yaa lagga iibin karaa, yaan se lagga iibin Karin? Ogoobeey, si su’aalahan oo dhan looga jawaabo, waa in uu jiraa xeer qeexaya qaabka saamigan loo iibinayo, ma se jiro. Macluumaadka noocan ah ee maqan la’aantii way adag tahay in la diiwaangaliyo shirkad noocan oo kale ah. Macluumaadkan waxa la yidhaahdaa “Instruction of Raising Funds By Shares,” oo waan in la gudbiyaa ka dib marka la gudbiyo macluumaadka heshiishka “Preliminary Agreement of Promoters-ka.” Haddii ay sidaas tahay, macluumaadka waa la gudbiyay maadaama lagu guulaystay in la diiwaangeliyo. Su’aal waxa ah, haddii shirkaddu tahay mid dawli ah, ase xeerkii ay ku shaqayn lahayd ba aanu jirin, sidee hab-raaca maamulkeedda farsamo iyo ka maaliyadeedba shakhsiyaad dusha uga allibteen, looguna guulaystay diiwaangelinteeda? Way fududahay jawaabtu oo shakhsiyaad ayaa heshiis galay, qaabka ay shares-ka u iibinayaan xusay, sidaas na ku diiwaangashaday! Waxa xaqiiqa ah, shirkadda waxa loo aasaasay si gaar ah ee ma aha mid dawladi leedahay.

Dadka qaar baa laga yaabaa in ay ku doodaan, oo sowta lacagta la sheegay in wasaaradda maaliyaddu bixisay, masuuliyiintuna sheegeen in dawladdu leedahay. Horta kaliya lacag baa la bixiyay wax laguma mulkiyo amma laguma yeesho sideedaba. Waa ta kale e, haddii ba ay jirto in dawladdu leedahay, amma sida la sheegay ay wasaaradda maaliyaddu hooyo u tahay, waa maxay sababta keentay in wasiirka maaliyaddu uu yidhaahdo anigu waxba kama ogi shirkadda iyo lahaanshaheeda? Waa maxay sababta shirkadda ay uga warqabaan kaliya safiir Baashe Iyo Wasiir Sacad, ee dhamaan masuuliyiintii la waraystay dhamaantood ay u yidhaahdeen kama war hayno? Dhanka kale, haddii dawladu leedahay marka hore waa in ay jirto mulkiyad sharci ah oo ay ku xusan tahay lahaanshiyaha shirkaddu. Arrintana ma jiro masuul sheegay qaabka dawladu ay ku aasaastay shirkadda iyo procedure-ka sharci ee ay martay!Sidaas awgeed, dooddaasi waa mid jabban ee shirkaddu waa mid si shakhsi ah ay u leeyihiin dadkaa diiwaangashaday, dawladduna aanay sharciyan lahayn.

Dhanka kale, dooddaydu waxa ay tahay shirkaddu waa mid ka luntay ciddii ehelka u ahayd, sharciyanna aad habbaw u ah. Waxa aan uga jeedaa, Wasiir Sacad Iyo Safiir Baashe ba waxa ay sheegeen in Wasaaradda Maaliyaddu ay tahay ta hooyada u ah shirkadda ee ay hoos tagto. Waxa ay u hoos tagaa waa fawdo iyo jahwareer. Sida ku cad xeer-nidaamiyaha xukuumadda Somaliland, ma jirto masuuliyad noocan ah oo ay leedahay wasaaradda maaliyaddu! Tan caksigeeda, guddida maalgashiga dibadda ayaa ah cidda leh masuuliyadda ugu weyn ee maalgashiga dibadeed sida ku cad qodobka 5aad ee xeerka maalgashiga dibadeed (Xeer Lr. 29/2004). Wax iyanna cajiib ah, marka Wasaaradda Maaliyaddu ay maalgalinayso shirkaddan, waa maxay xeerka ay raacaysaa tallow? Miisaaniyad ay ku jirtay arrintani ma jirto, xeer si gooniya u faraya maalgalinteeduna ma jiro, inta aan ka ogahay e!

 Gabagabadii, ogoobeey ‘Curinta fikirka’ company-gu waa mid ammaan mudan. Sababtu waxa weeye wuxuu qarranka ka caawin doonaa in uu maalgashadayaal badan soo jiito, kuna dhiirigeliyo maalgashiga Somaliland, isna waliba uu maalgashan karo. Mid se wax ba kama jiraan, shirkadda dawladdaa leh ma aha waxa saxda ah ee ay caddaymahaa kor ku xusani inoo sheegayaan, ee si shakhsi ah amma private ah ayaa loo leeyahay shirkadda. Su’aasha ah shakhsiyaad ma yeelan karaan, haa way yeelan karaan ee is-been-fariinka iyo in lagu adeegto magaca qarranka ayaa xun e, shakhsiyaad way yeelan karaan qarrankoodana way ugu adeegi karaan sida caadiyanba ka dhacda dunidda inteeda kale. Dhanka kale, shirkadda qaabka looga warbixiyay ma aha mid Somaliland shuruucdeeda waafaqsan, xataa haddii ba ay noqon lahayd mid dawladdu leedahay.

Sidaas awgeed, waxa aan soo jeedin lahaa:-

  1. Horta waa in abbuurka shirkadda laga run sheegaa si looga fogaado in magaca qarranka si khaladan loogaga faa’iidaysto arrimo la xidhiidha faa’iido-doon shakhsi ah.
    2. Xukuumaddu waa in ay caddaysaa qaabka ay ku yeelatay shirkaddan oo gabi ahaan ba aan waafaqsanayn sharciga, haddii doodeedu tahay shirkaddu waa mid dawli ah!
    3. Marka ay noqoto abbuurka shirkadaha noocan ah, shakhsiyan waxa ila quman in loo dhaafo in dad shakhsiyaad ahi ay shirkadahan maalgashi samaystaan, dawladduna ay ku caawiso wixii shuruuc, dammaanad, dhiirigelin iyo siyaasado ay u baahan yihiin shirkadahani si ay u soo jiitaan maalgashadayaal dibadeed amma iyaga laftooduba ay Somaliland u maalgashadaan.

 

W/Q: Abdifatah Ahmed Ileeye

MA Candidate in Governance and Public Policy at University of Passau, Germany

E-mail: Abdifataax11@live.com

Passau, Germany

 

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