Habraaca Cusub Ee Lagu Soo Kordhiyay Kastamyadda Soomaaliland – Xaashida Cadaynta Alaabta

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Habraaca Cusub Ee Lagu Soo Kordhiyay Kastamyadda Soomaaliland – Xaashida Cadaynta Alaabta (GOODS DECLARATION FORM)

Wixii ka horeeyey qarnigii 21aad, kastamyada waxa lagu tilmaami jirey in ay yihiin mid ka mid ah waardiyayaasha (gatekeepers) dalalka, waxa ayna caqabad adag ku hayeen isu socodka ganacsiga (trade transaction) dunida. Sababta oo ah, waajibkooda u weyn, uguna mudan baa waxa uu ahaa in ay soo xareeyaan dakhli badan, markaa waxa ay aad ugu dedaali jireen in aan cashuurta la lunsan, lana il-duufin, sidaa-darteed, waxa ay wakhti badan ku bixin jireen in alaab kaste oo ganacsi la hubiyo tiradeeda iyo tayadeeda si cashuurta ku waajibtay loo saaro, taasi oo wakhti badan ka lumin jirtay ganacsatada, kastamyadana awood-dhaqaale (recource) oo badan baa kaga bixi jirtay. Bilowgii dagaalkii qaboobaana, kastamyada waajibkooda ugu mudan wuxu noqdey ilaalinta amaanka, waxana aad loo baadhi jirey alaab kaste oo wadanka soo galaysa ama ka baxaaysa. Si la mid ah habka hore, kanina waxa uu ahaa, mid wakhti badan ka lumin jirey ganacsatada, kastamyadana awood-dhaqaale oo badan kaga bixi jirtay. Bilowgii qarniga 21aad, kastamyada dunida badankoodu waxa ay bilaabeen sidii ay u fududeeyn lahaayeen isu socodka ganacsiga, si gaar ah la bixista iyo sii deeynta alaabta (customs clearance and release), iyada oo aan hadana la baalmareeyn sharciyadda iyo habraacyada kastamka u dejisan, iyo weliba ilaalinta khatarta ku dhex dhuuman karta isu socodka ganacsiga.  

In kaste oo kastamyadu ka masuulyihiin hubinta alaab kaste oo dalka soo gallaaysa iyo ta ka baxaaysaba, hadana maadaama dunidii isku furantay, ganacsigii dunida ka dhaxeeyeyna sanadba sanadka ka danbeeya sii kordhayo, waxa isna marba marka ka danbeeysa culeeys shaqo la kulmaya kastamka. Sidaa-darteed, kastamyada waxa waajibaadkooda ugu mudan ku soo kordhay fududeeynta isu socodka ganacsiga. 

Hadaba, si guud, habraacyada kastamyadu (customs procedures), waa hab ay kastamyadu ula macaamilaan isu socodka alaabta, iyaga oo ku dabaqaya sharuurcda dejisan, hadii ay tahay xakameeyn (control) ama fududeeyn (facilitation). Habraaca la bixida alaabtuna (clearance procedure), waa hab ka kooban dhawr daariiq oo sharci ah oo la maro, si loola baxo alaabta. Sidaa-darteed, habraaca, Xaashida Cadeeynta Alaabtu, (goods declaration form procedure) waa mid hoos yimaada, habraaca la bixida alaabta, waana bar-bilowga fududeeynta isu socodka ganacsiga iyo yareeynta/dedejinta wakhtiga alaabta lagula bixi karo. Dhinaca-kalena, waa habraaca ugu muhiimsan ee lagu xakameeyo khataraha ku lamaan isu socodka ganacsiga. 

Xaashida cadeeynta alaabta, waxa Kastamyada Somaliland lagu soo kordhiyey 2016, ka dib markii uu dhaqan gallay xeerka kastamyadu (Xeer Kastam N0.73/2016). In kaste oo uu habkani weli si buuxda uga wada dhaqan-gallin kastamyada Somaliland, hadana waa habraac uu ganacsadaha ama wakiilkiisu ku cadeeynayo alaabtiisa, isaga oo ku soo gudbinaya xaashida rasmiga ah (form). Habkani, waa mid lagu mideeynayo, hal meelna isugu geeynaya, dhamaan warqadaha rasmiga ah (documents) ee laga rabo ganacsadaha. Sidaa-darteed, habraacani wuxu koobayaa, hal midna ka dhigayaa, dhawr habraac oo la mari jiray iyo dhawr xafiis oo la booqan jirey, kuwaas oo wakhti iyo awood-dhaqaaleba (recource) ku bixi jireen.  

Habkani waa mid casri ah, kaasi oo dunida oo dhan ay isticmaasho, si loo fududeeyo, loona yareeyo kharashaadka iyo wakhtiga ku baxaya isu socodka ganacsiga. Sidoo-kale, waa mid waafaqsan nidaamka ay dejiyeen Ururka Kastmayada Aduunka (WCO) iyo Haayadda Ganacsiga Aduunku (WTO). 

Xaashida cadeeynta alaabta Kastamyada Somaliland, waxa lagu soo gudbinayaa;

  • Warqada rasmiga ah ee cadeeynaaysa alaabta kuu saaran markabka/diyaaradda/gaadhiga (manifest).

  • Tirada shixnadaha ama xidhoominka soo degay. Iyada oo shixnad kaste ama xidhmo kaste la sheegayo tirada alaabta ku jirta iyo nooca ay tahay alaabtaasi (packing list).

  • Warqada ogolaanshaha la bixista alaabta (delivery order) taasi oo shirkadii waday alaabta laga soo qaadanayo.

  • Qaansheegta rasmiga ee wax lagu soo iibsaday (commercial invoice). 

  • Kharashka xamuulka (freight cost). 

  • kharashka caymiska (insurance cost).

  • Warqadda heshiiska ah ee alaabta lagu soo qaaday, taas oo u dhaxeeysa qofka alaabta soo direy, kuwa loo soo dhiibay (diyaarad ama Markab ama gaadhi); iyo qofka loo geeynayo (Air way-bill or bill of lading) 

  • Hab-tireedka kalasaarida alaabtu (goods classification code) ka tahay buugga Tacriifadda Somaliland.

  • Qiimaha cashuurta (value) ee ku dhacaaysa alaabtaada. Taasi oo ku qoran buugga Tacriifadda Kastamyada Somaliland.  

  • Liisanka Wasaaradda Ganacsiga. Sidoo-kale, hadii aad la soo degaayso alaab ay tahay in liisan loo qaato sida dawooyinka iyo bacrimiyayaasha oo ah in aad Wasaaradda Cafimaadka iyo Wasaaradda Beeraha ka haaysato liisan. 

Fiiro gaar ah: Qaansheegta ganacsigu (commercial invoice), wax cashuur ah ma kordhinaayso, waxa qiimeeynta alaabta laga dheeganayaa ama laga tixraacayaa, buugga Tacriifadda kastamyada Somaliland.

Habkani waxa uu meesha ka saarayaa in kastamyadu ay shixnad kaste ama xidhmo kaste baadhaan oo ay mid mid u tiriyaan, kaliya in muunad (sample) ah uun baa magacooda, tiradooda iyo tayadooda la eegayaa, dabeedna hadii intaas muunadda ah iyo xogta xaashida cadeeynta alaabta lagu soo gudbiyey ay is yeeshaan, alaabta waa la fasaxayaa, inta hadhayna la tirin maayo. Hadii habkan sida uu yahay loo hirgaliyo, waxa yaraanaya wakhtigii la bixista alaabta iyo xafiisyadii la booqan jirey, dhinaca-kale kharashka ku baxaya la bixista. Alaabta ayaa ka yaraanaya kii hore. Sabata oo ah, marka aan habraacan la adeegsaneeyn xafiisyo dhawr ah baa la maraa, alaabtana dhamaanteed xabad xabad baa loo tiriyaa, dabadeedna wakhti badan iyo awood-dhaqaale ayaa ku baxa.  

Tusaale: hadii 10 shixnadood kuu soo degaan, oo markii hore dhamaantood alaabta ku jirta la tirin jirey, imika dhawr shixanadood uun baa la hubinayaa, sugnaashahooda. Markaa hadii ay awel kugu qaadan jirtay 8 saacadood in alaabtaada lagu cashuuro, hada 2 ama 3 saacadood bay hawshuba kuugu dhamaanaaysaa.

Marka intaas laga yimaad, habkani wuxu kordhinayaa, korna u qaadayaa kalsoonida iyo daacadnimada ganacsadaha lagu qabo (level of compliance). markaste oo uu ganacsaduhu run sheegnimadiisa iyo daacadnimadiisu badato, waxa yaraanaya tirada alaabtiisa ee la hubinayo. Sidaa-darteed, waxa u baaqanaya wakhti badan oo awel ka bixi jirey. Dhinaca-kale, ganacsatada ama wakiiladooda uu tartanku ka dhaxeeyo, ayaa ku tartami doona daacadnimada iyo ka run-sheegida alaabta u soo degtay ama ay saarayaan. tanina waxa ay sababaaysaa in laaluushkii ay bixin jireen si alaabta dhakhso loogu saaro uu meesha ka baxo, waxana ganacsatada iyo waakiladoodaba u baaqanaya lacag ay markii horeba sharci daro ku bixin jireen. Intaa waxa dheer, in habkani uu kordhinayo dakhliga dawladda u soo xerooda, maadaama musugmaasuqa qeeyb weeyn oo ka mid ah meesha laga saarayo. Sidaa-darteed, habraacani waa mid faa’ido weeyn u leh ganacsatada, dawladda iyo dawladnimadaba. 

Hadaba tan iyo intii ay Wasaaradda Horumarinta Maaliyaddu soo saartay habkan cusub, isticmaalkiisu ma aheeyn mid waajib ah oo lagu khasbanyahay, laakiin wuxa uu ahaa mid ikhtiyaar ah, oo isticmaal la’aantiisa aan wax dhib ah lagala kulmeeyn. Laakiin, wixii ka danbeeyey 10, January, 2020, waxa laga dhigay mid waajib ah, oo aan la’aantiin kastamyada alaab lagala bixi Karin, sida lagu shaaciyey wareegto ka soo baxday Wasaaradda Horumarinta Maaliyadda, 20, August, 2019, taasi oo uu Wasiir Sacad cali Shire ku saxeexnaa.  Si kasteba ha ahaatee, waxa nasiib daro ah in amarkii wareegtada ku soo baxay aanu siduu ahaa u hirgalin, sababta oo ah ganacsatadu uma hogaansamin, mana ay fulin wareegtadaa amarka ah ee Wasaaradda ka soo baxday. Markaa habraacani kama hirgallin dhamaan kastamyada Somaliland, marka laga reebo, Kastamka Madaarka Cigaal ee Hargeysa.  

Gebogabadii, maadaama, habkan uu dan u yahay dawladda oo uu dakhligii kordhinayo, taageerayana dawladnimadana, oo uu musuqmaasuqii yareeynayo, ganacsatadana uu u fududeynayo la bixta alaabta, sidoo-kalena uu yareynayo kaharshaadkii iyo wakhtigii kaga bixi jirey la bixisata alaabta, korna u qaadayo xidhiidhka, kalsoonida iyo daacanimada ka dhaxaaysa kastamyada iyo ganacsatada;

  • waa in dawladdu (Wasaaradda Horumarinta Maaliyadda) ku dedaashaa sidii loo xoojin lahaa habkan, iyadoo la fidinayo lana gaadhsiinayo dhamaan kastamyada Somaliland. 

  • Maadaama la dhisayo kalsoonida iyo daacadnimada ganacsatada, waa in ganacsatada loo bandhigaa laguna tabobaraa habkan cusub. 

  • Waa in ay ganacsatada iyo wakiiladoodu si sahlan oo dhibyar ku helaan xaashida cadeeynta alaabta, si ay u soo buuxiyaan, uguna soo lifaaqaan waraaqaha looga baahanyahay ka hor inta ayna kastamyada iman.  

  • Waa in si daahfuran (transparent) loo baahiyaa, xeerarka, shuruucda, habraacayada iyo tacriifadda kastamyada, ayna ahaadaan kuwo si fudud lagu heli karo (online iyo offline), waana in ay ahaadaan kuwa si fudud cid kaste u fahmi karto. Tani waxa ay sahlaaysaa in ganacsadaha ama wakiilkiisu ogaado waxa mar kaste looga baahanayahay. 

  • Si habkan cusubi uga sii wanaag bato (efficient) ugana dhakhso badnaado (effective) sida hada uu yahay, waa in laga dhigaa mid ku shaqeeya technologiyadda, loona adeegsada habka lagu maareeyo khataraha (Risk Management Technique) habkan ayaa isaguna ah mid lagu xakameeyo khataraha ganacsiga ku lamaan ee ka gudba kastamyada, si alaab kaste oo khatar looga shikiyo la hubiyo aadna loogu baadho, alaabta khatarteedu yartahayna kaliya la hubiyo, alaabta aan khatartu ku lamaaneeyna hore loogu sii daayo

  • Maadaama cida hubinaaysa in loo hogaansamay shuruucda, lana maray habkii sharciga ahaa ay tahay shaqaalaha, waa in shaqaalaha kastamyada lagu tabobaraa, xeerarka, shuruucda iyo habraacyada kastamyada, si ay si fudud ugu dabaqaan. 

  • Sidoo-kale, waa in shaqaalaha lagu tabobaraa, akhlaaq wanaag, la dhaqanka iyo daryeelka macaamiisha, go’aan qaadashada iyo hogaaminta. Waxana lagama maarmaan ah, in la dhiso, korna loo qaado aqoonta cilmiga kastamyada ee shaqaalaha, sidoo-kalena waa in lagu qalabeeya xirfadda isticmaalka technoligiyada iyo sida khataraha kastamka loo maareeyo. 

Si kasteba ha ahaatee, hadii si dhab loo fuliyo dhamaan talooyinkan, iyaga oo ay iska kaashanayaan Wasaaradda Horumarinta Maaliyadda iyo ganacsatadu, dawladuna ku taagerto, waxa hubaal ah in; 

  • Kastamayadeenu la jaanqaadi doonaan kuwa dunida horumartay, isku socodka ganacsigeena iyo ka duniduna uu noqon doona mid si aad ah u kordha.

  • Waxa aynu la tartami doono kastamyadda wadamada Bariga-Afrika, dabeedna adeegyada kastamyadeenu bixiyaan waxa ku soo xidhmi doona, oo ay soo jiidan doonaan wadamada aan badaha laheeyn.

  • Markaste oo isku socodka ganacsigu kordho, waxa isna kordhi doona maalgashiga maxaliga ah iyo ka caalamiga ah (local & foreing investment), kaasi oo kordhin doona dhaqaalaheena (economic development) korna u qaadi doona dakhliga dawladda. Dabadeedna, shaqooyin badan baa abuurmi doonna, kuwaas oo kor u qaadi doona ladnaanta dadka dalka degan, xoogna u yareeyn doona faqriga iyo isku tiirsanaanta (dependency). 

Cabdiraxmaan Sh. Maxamed Ibraahim
M.A in Customs Administration
cabdiraxmanmid@gmail.com 

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